Controller versus view in MVC .net: is the code in the view as fast as that in the controller? Is it slower?

One of the basic rules of MVC is that views should be only – exactly – views, that is to say: objects that present to the user something that is already “worked and calculated”.

They should perform little, if not none at all, calculation. All the significant code should be in the controllers. This allows better testability and maintainability.

Is this, in Microsoft’s interpretation of MVC, also justified by performance?

We tested this with a very simple code that does this:

– creates 200000 “cat” objects and adds them to a List

– creates 200000 “owner” objects and adds them to a List

– creates 200000 “catowner” objects (the MTM relation among cats and owners) and adds them to a List

– navigates through each cat, finds his/her owner, removes the owner from the list of owners (we don’t know if cats really wanted this, but their freedom on code fits our purposes).

We’ve run this code in a controller and in a razor view.

The result seem to suggest that the code in views runs just as fast as in controllers even if don’t pre-compile views (the compilation time in our test is negligible).

The average result for the code with the logic in the controller is 18.261 seconds.

The average result for the code with the logic in the view is 18.621 seconds.

The performance seems therefore very similar.

Here is how we got to this result.

Case 1: Calculations are in the CONTROLLER

Models:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;

namespace WebPageTest.Models
{
public class Owner
{
public string Name { get; set; }
public DateTime DOB { get; set; }
public virtual CatOwner CatOwner { get; set; }
}
public class Cat
{
public string Name { get; set; }
public DateTime DOB { get; set; }
public virtual CatOwner CatOwner { get; set; }
}
public class CatOwner
{
public virtual Cat Cat { get; set; }
public virtual Owner Owner { get; set; }
}
}

Controller:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Mvc;
using WebPageTest.Models;

namespace WebPageTest.Controllers
{
public class HomeController : Controller
{
public ActionResult Index()
{
Stopwatch howLongWillItTake = new Stopwatch();
howLongWillItTake.Start();
List<Owner> allOwners = new List<Owner>();
List<Cat> allCats = new List<Cat>();
List<CatOwner> allCatOwners = new List<CatOwner>();
// create lists with 200000 cats, 200000 owners, 200000 relations
for (int i = 0; i < 200000; i++)
{
//Cat
Cat CatX = new Cat();
CatX.Name = “Cat ” + i.ToString();
CatX.DOB = DateTime.Now.AddDays(i / 10);
//Owner
Owner OwnerX = new Owner();
OwnerX.Name = “Owner ” + i.ToString();
OwnerX.DOB = DateTime.Now.AddDays(-i / 10);
//Relationship “table”
CatOwner CatOwnerXX = new CatOwner();
CatOwnerXX.Cat = CatX;
// Relations
CatOwnerXX.Owner = OwnerX;
CatX.CatOwner = CatOwnerXX;
OwnerX.CatOwner = CatOwnerXX;
//add to list
allCats.Add(CatX);
allOwners.Add(OwnerX);
allCatOwners.Add(CatOwnerXX);
}
// now I remove all the items
foreach (Cat CatToDelete in allCats)
{
Owner OwnerToRemove = CatToDelete.CatOwner.Owner;
allOwners.Remove(OwnerToRemove);
}
// now all cats are free
int numberOfCats = allCats.Count();
int numberOfOwners = allOwners.Count();
howLongWillItTake.Stop();
long elapsedTime = howLongWillItTake.ElapsedMilliseconds;
// give info to the view
ViewBag.numberOfCats = numberOfCats;
ViewBag.numberOfOwners = numberOfOwners;
ViewBag.elapsedTime = elapsedTime;
return View();
}
}
}

View:

<div class=”row”>
<div class=”col-md-12″>
<hr />
<b>Results</b>
<br/>
Cats: @ViewBag.numberOfCats
<br/>
Owners: @ViewBag.numberOfOwners
<br/>
ElapsedTime in milliseconds: @ViewBag.ElapsedTime
<hr />
</div>
</div>

Case 2: Calculations are in the VIEW (pre-compiled)

Models: same as above

Controller:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Mvc;

namespace WebPageTest.Controllers
{
public class HomeBisController : Controller
{
public ActionResult Index()
{
return View();
}
}
}

View:

@using System;
@using System.Collections.Generic;
@using System.Diagnostics;
@using System.Linq;
@using System.Web;
@using WebPageTest.Models;
@using System.Web.Mvc;
@{
Stopwatch howLongWillItTake = new Stopwatch();
howLongWillItTake.Start();
List<Owner> allOwners = new List<Owner>();
List<Cat> allCats = new List<Cat>();
List<CatOwner> allCatOwners = new List<CatOwner>();
//create lists with 200000 cats, 200000 owners, 200000 relations
for (int i = 0; i < 200000; i++)
{
//Cat
Cat CatX = new Cat();
CatX.Name = “Cat ” + i.ToString();
CatX.DOB = DateTime.Now.AddDays(i / 10);
//Owner
Owner OwnerX = new Owner();
OwnerX.Name = “Owner ” + i.ToString();
OwnerX.DOB = DateTime.Now.AddDays(-i / 10);
//Relationship “table”
CatOwner CatOwnerXX = new CatOwner();
CatOwnerXX.Cat = CatX;
// Relations
CatOwnerXX.Owner = OwnerX;
CatX.CatOwner = CatOwnerXX;
OwnerX.CatOwner = CatOwnerXX;
//add to list
allCats.Add(CatX);
allOwners.Add(OwnerX);
allCatOwners.Add(CatOwnerXX);
}
// now I remove all the items
foreach (Cat CatToDelete in allCats)
{
Owner OwnerToRemove = CatToDelete.CatOwner.Owner;
allOwners.Remove(OwnerToRemove);
}
// now all cats are free
int numberOfCats = allCats.Count();
int numberOfOwners = allOwners.Count();
howLongWillItTake.Stop();
long elapsedTime = howLongWillItTake.ElapsedMilliseconds;
// give info to the view

}
<div class=”row”>
<div class=”col-md-12″>
<hr />
<b>Results</b>
<br />
Cats: @numberOfCats
<br />
Owners: @numberOfOwners
<br />
ElapsedTime in milliseconds: @elapsedTime
<hr />
</div>
</div>

A simple redirection mechanism using MVC 5 [and IIS8], including “Legacy” URLs

For some hours, I have been looking for good ideas on how to manage redirections in MVC without necessarily configuring IIS (which is not always available to the programmer, unfortunately).

However, very few of the walkthroughs found on the web take into account dealing with “legacy” URLs; primarily, those who have the “.html” extension.

How do I, in MVC, redirect a URL like “oldfolder/oldfilename.html” to a new MVC URL as “/newfolder/beautifulpeople” ?

The answer is not the simplest, because MVC doesn’t manage all that is asked to it by the browser:

A client request is handled, summarily, like this:

– MVC manages the “MVC” routes (as “/area/controller/action”)

– IIS8 manages the static files, which *presumably* don’t need MVC’s intervention.

If we want to manage all the redirections via MVC, we have to tell MVC that it has to take care of BOTH MVC routes AND static files (unless, of course, the latter don’t exist as such. If the static file exists, let IIS transfer it to the user).

The following is a very basic mechanism which uses MVC and a DB table to store redirections. It can be extended to use caching and OR XML files to be faster. It is also true that redirections should be an exception rather than the norm.

The idea is:

– We create a DB table holding old URLs and corresponding new URLs, along with the code we want to use for the redirection (301 is permanent) and an “active” flag.

– We create a set of MVC “catchall” routes (in the RouteConfig file) which will prevent 404 (“not found”) and will call a new controller that does the “redirection” job

– This new controller checks if the DB has an entry equal to the originating URL. If there is, it redirects  the flow to the new URL (permanenty or temporarily, depending on what we wrote in the DB entry); otherwise, it generates a custom 404 page.

– We tell MVC (in web.config) that it has to also take care of the routes that look like files, unless (of course) they are actual static files.

RouteConfig

In our MVC application’s RouteConfig, we create, AFTER the standard routes, a set of “catchall” routes which will direct to a new controller and action (“Error”/”NotFound”) all the requests that could not be routed to an existing controller.

Like this:

//Default, Real route

routes.MapRoute(

name: “Default”,
url: “{controller}/{action}/{id}”,
defaults: new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index”, id = UrlParameter.Optional },
constraints: new { controller=”Home|Search|Account|Show|Other_Controllers|Error”} // CONSTRAINTS are VERY IMPORTANT
);

//catchAll routes to grab the URLs we want to redirect

routes.MapRoute(
name: “Redirect_OrError”,
url: “{*CatchAll1*}”,
defaults: new { controller = “Error”, action = “NotFound” }
);

routes.MapRoute(
name: “Redirect_OrError_two_levels”,
url: “{CatchAll1*}/{CatchAll2*}”,
defaults: new { controller = “Error”, action = “NotFound” }
);

routes.MapRoute(
name: “Redirect_OrError_three_levels”,
url: “{CatchAll1*}/{CatchAll2*}/{CatchAll3*}”,
defaults: new { controller = “Error”, action = “NotFound” }
);
routes.MapRoute(
name: “Redirect_OrError_four_levels”,
url: “{CatchAll1*}/{CatchAll2*}/{CatchAll3*}/{CatchAll4*}”,
defaults: new { controller = “Error”, action = “NotFound” }
);

Attention: The “default, real” MapRoute method must be called with Constraints (Controller=”Home|…. all the controllers you have). If you don’t do so, MVC will not fall through to our “catchall” controllers. It will stop at the default and will give a “404”.

The “Error” Controller

The “Error” Controller does three things:

1. It checks if the request is actually found in the Redirections table as a URL we consider as “old”

2. If it is there, we redirect to the new URL (if 301, “RedirectPermanent”; if others, “Redirect”)

3. If it doesn’t, it generates a custom error page with a 404 status code

public class ErrorController:Controller
{

[HttpGet]
public ActionResult NotFound()
{

string UrlToTest = Request.Url.AbsolutePath.Trim(‘/’);
Redirections redirect = RedirectManager.GetRedirectFromDB(UrlToTest);
if (redirect != null)
{
if (redirect.RedirectType==”301″)
{
return RedirectPermanent(redirect.NewURL);
}
else
{
return Redirect(redirect.NewURL);
}
}
Response.StatusCode = 404;
ViewBag.UrlToTest = UrlToTest;
return View();
}

public ErrorController()
{

}

}

Now what is the RedirectManager we just found in the code?

Very simply, it is a class which contains some helper classes and methods that allow us to examine the DB and look for the URL we want to redirect from.

public class RedirectManager

{

public RedirectManager()

{

}

public class RedirectionsDTO
{

public int Id { get; set; }
public string OldURL { get; set; }
public string NewURL { get; set; }
public string RedirectType { get; set; }
public Nullable<bool> Active { get; set; }

}

public static Redirections GetRedirectFromDB(string OldUrl)
{
RedirectionsDTO redirects;
using (var db = new OurEntitiesDB()) // this is the name of your Entity Framework
{
string URLWithoutSlash = OldUrl;
if (!URLWithoutSlash.StartsWith(“/”))
{
URLWithoutSlash = “/” + URLWithoutSlash;
}

redirects = (from e in db.Redirections
where (e.Active == true && (e.OldURL == URLWithoutSlash))
select new RedirectionsDTO
{
OldURL = e.OldURL,
NewURL = e.NewURL,
RedirectType=e.RedirectType,
Active=e.Active
}).FirstOrDefault();
if (redirects != null)
{
return new Redirections { OldURL = redirects.OldURL, NewURL = redirects.NewURL, Active=redirects.Active, RedirectType=redirects.RedirectType };
}
else
{
return null;
}

}

}

}

}

How is the Redirect table created? It is created by Entity Framework Database first, based on a table maybe similar to this…

MVC redirection storage table

Table which holds redirection data

There should be an index on the OldURL column because we will include it in our queries.

The generated code could be something like this:

namespace YourPreferredNameSpace

{
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public partial class Redirections
{
public int Id { get; set; }
public string OldURL { get; set; }
public string NewURL { get; set; }
public string RedirectType { get; set; }
public Nullable<bool> Active { get; set; }
}
}

Of course, you have to fill this table with the needed redirections! I suggest you create a controller and allow scaffolding templates to automatically generate the CRUD actions and views for these “Redirections” objects.

Web.Config

What we did so far does not help us if we want to redirect *.html files (or *.pdf files, for that matter). This is beacuse IIS will think that the *.html file should not be a part of an MVC route and it will look for it as a static file. To allow MVC to see the *.html URL as a possible MVC route (and redirect it, if needed), we have to allow MVC to examine all the file requests. To do so, we have three suggested paths. There are: an easy+smart way, a smart way and a semi-silly way. The easy+smart way didn’t work for me. The “smart way” did. It happens.

The easy+smart way is to patch the IIS as this article suggests: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/980368

It didn’t work for me because I had no access to IIS.

The “smart one” is suggested by Colin Farr in this old but powerful article:

http://www.britishdeveloper.co.uk/2010/06/dont-use-modules-runallmanagedmodulesfo.html

he suggests that in System.webServers you add

<system.webServer>
<modules >
<remove name=”UrlRoutingModule-4.0″ />
<add name=”UrlRoutingModule-4.0″ type=”System.Web.Routing.UrlRoutingModule” preCondition=”” />

… other modules…

</module>

Now the silly solution instead:

add the runAllManagedModulesForAllRequests=”true” attribute to the “module” section. Colin Farr already explains why this is silly, so I will not.

<modules runAllManagedModulesForAllRequests=”true”>